Consequences of h-SPACE THEORY
 




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APPENDIX 1. CONSEQUENCES OF h-SPACE THEORY BEYOND MODERN PHYSICS


TETRANEUTRON, DIPROTON, DINEUTRON, MULTI-MUONS

In the suggested theory, due to the fact that protons and neutrons are complexes of electrons and positrons, the formation of unstable complex having more electrons and positrons, such as tetraneutron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetraneutron), diproton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isotopes_of_helium#Helium-2_.28diproton.29) and dineutron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dineutron) is possible (see Fig. 14a). According to the modern theoretical concepts, these complexes do not exist. Muons, in the suggested theory, have the same composition as protons, but in contrast to the proton, an unstable spatial configuration. Because of this, we can also consider as real the multi-muons, as unstable complexes, clusters of electrons and positrons. Multi-muons were detected in collisions of protons and antiprotons (http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.5357). Another unstable cluster can be a complex of three protons shown in figure 14a.

VARIABILITY OF CONSTANTS

In the proposed theory, the speed of light and the “Planck constant” are both constants. The charge of the electron corresponds to the density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0 and, accordingly, decreases with time. This reduction in charge can explain the results obtained by astronomer John K. Webb, who in 1999, discovered that light from a distant quasar 12 billion light years, is absorbed by metal ions in interstellar clouds, but the absorbed photons do not correspond to the spectra of the metals. Since the interaction of light with matter is determined by the fine-structure constant, α, then it has been suggested that α had a different value. This assumption is not consistent with modern physical concepts. All three constants, which determine the alpha (α=e2/hc) – the electron charge (e), the speed of light (c) and Planck constant (h), cannot be changed. In the proposed theory, however, the electron charge is not constant. Accordingly, the alpha should decrease with time, offering an explanation for the observed change in the absorption/emission spectrum of metals.

BOUNDARY OF GRAVITY AND KUIPER BELT

In the proposed theory, the effect of gravity has a boundary that is determined by the density and size of a body. In the suggested theory, it is assumed that the Sun has a maximum density ρM , similar to the density of atomic nuclei. Under these conditions, the density of n=0 objects(I) ρM is maximal and equal to ρ0, ρM = ρ0 = 1010. The boundary of the Sun’s gravity can be calculated, taking into account the linear dimension of the Sun, and is ≈ 1013 m (see “Gravitational attraction”). This is comparable to the distance from the Sun to the Kuiper Belt, ≈ 1013 m. To assess the limits of gravity of the planets (see “Gravitational attraction”), their density ρM is assumed to be less than that of the Sun. Then, the density of n=0-objects(I) ρM is ≈ 106–107. The calculation for the Earth shows that the boundary of its gravitational action is around 10 million kilometers.

ANTI-GRAVITY

The cause of gravity in the proposed theory is due to the reduction in density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0, or, more precisely, the change in the density of the vacuum ρM, around the body, as a result of the displacement of n=0-objects(I) by the body. In addition to gravity, a change in the density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0 takes place during the generation of magnetic field. It is characterized by the density ρΔ appearing as the result of electrons/positrons motion. Changes in the magnetic field, i.e. the changes in the density of n=0-objects(I) ρΔ, is associated with changes in the density of n=0 objects(I) ρ0, and therefore should lead to a change in the gravitational attraction, which is associated with the decrease in the density ρ0.

COLD FUSION – LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION (LENR)

After the report in 1989 by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, the majority of cold fusion (LENR) experiments were performed as electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode. The results (excess heat, helium generation, nuclear transmutations, neutron and tritium radiation) were inconsistent and contrary to the official current view on the synthesis of helium nuclei from deuteron. In another type of LENR experiment, nickel rod saturated with hydrogen was heated and excess heat was reported (Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems. 1994 S. Focardi, R. Habel and F. Piantelli, IL NUOVOCIMENTO VOL. 107A, N. 1; Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems. 1998 S. Focardi, V. Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli and S. Veronesi, IL NUOVO CIMENTO VOL. 111A, N. 11). In 2011, new attention to LENR research was attracted by the demonstration performed by Andrea Rossi. A high excess heat was reported in his device, called the E-cat. In the E-cat nickel powder was sutured with hydrogen and heated under high pressure. The fuel in the E-cat contained additional elements besides the nickel. According to the patent application, analysis of the fuel after its use in the E-cat showed that it contained a number of different elements, indicating both nuclear fusion and fission (http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Patent_WO-2009-125444.pdf). In 2013, the test of modified Rossi’s device (called the E-cat HT) by other investigators confirmed the previously observed thermal effects (Levi, G., et al., 2013 Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device arXiv:1305.3913). In 2014, another test of Rossi’s device was performed for duration (32 days) longer than previously (http://www.sifferkoll.se/sifferkoll/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/LuganoReportSubmit.pdf). The investigators have detected lithium, aluminum and iron in the initial fuel. The heat excess was again confirmed and it was found out that nickel and lithium in the ash had different isotopes ratio in comparison with the initial fuel. The most interesting is decrease of 7Li amount that indicates the possibility of its fission. In the proposed theory, LENR can be explained by the positron-electron composition of nuclei and Coulomb low at the atomic scale. According to the proposed theory:
1. in atoms at a distance 10−15 to 10−10 meters there is no attraction/repulsion of electrons and positrons;
2. in atoms, attraction/repulsion increases from zero at 10−10 meters to a maximum at 10−5 meters from the nucleus;
3. in the nucleus there is no strong interaction. Electrons and positrons are held by their attraction and repulsion to each other with a velocity of 10−2 meters per second.
Thus, in the proposed theory the problem of overcoming the Coulomb repulsion between the nuclei is not relevant for a range of distances from 10-15 to 10-10 meters. Nuclear repulsion exists only in the range 10-5–10-10 m, and it can be compensated by an attraction to the electrons placed at the same distance from the nucleus. Heating of the proton-saturated nickel powder increases electrons and protons mobility. Additionally, the pulsed magnetic field can also accelerate protons and electrons. This will increase the rate of collisions between electrons, nickel (and other elements) nuclei and protons. This can lead to:
1. proton fission to one electron and two positrons;
2. proton fission to an electron-positron pair and a free positron;
3. the formation neutrons, which are complexes of two positrons and two electrons.
4. the fission of nickel nuclei and nuclei of other elements.
All these events will cause generation of heat and the nuclear transmutations as the consequences of initial proton and nickel (as well lithium, in the case of E-cat) nuclei fission. In the proposed theory nuclear fusion is possible as secondary reactions, but they will not produce the heat excess in LENR devices. Very effective heat production in the E-cat is very likely due to fission of lithium in result of interaction of lithium nuclei with protons that produces the alpha particles. Low efficiency of the earlier experiments with nickel rods can be explained by lower efficiency of protons and nickel nuclei fission in comparison with lithium fission. It is also possible that the micron size of fuel particles has also contributed to the more efficient thermal affect, since electrostatic interaction is at maximum at the distance 10-5 meters.

FORMATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

In the proposed theory, after a while three-dimensional space is predicted to be replaced by four-dimensional space. The important question then is when this can happen. To answer this it is necessary to compare the length of objects of four-dimensional space with the current linear dimension of the universe. Today, the linear size of the universe is estimated at ≈ 1026 m. With the creation of four-dimensional space, the length of objects of four-dimensional space, and the total length of the universe in absolute length units is 1030. Since the absolute unit of length is equal to ≈ 10−5 m, it follows that the current size of the universe is close to the total length of the beginning of four-dimensional space. Thus, the change from three-dimensional space to four-dimensional space could be very soon. Another estimate of the time of transition can be obtained by assuming the identity of the constant c = 1/√ε0μ0 and the velocity v0ρ0. The transition to four-dimensional space, as has been stated above, can happen at a linear size of the universe equal to the length of n=4-object. In this case, the velocity
v0ρ0 will be reduced to the value equal to the velocity of one-dimensional objects, i.e. to the speed of light. A comparison of the values of the constant c (velocity v0ρ0) and the speed of light can provide a rough estimation of the transition time. The constant c is the inverse square root of the product of the vacuum permeability, μ0, and the vacuum permittivity, ε0. In this product, the value of μ0 is accurate and does not require the definition from the experiment. On the contrary ε0 is determined from experiment.
Changes that will accompany the emergence of four-dimensional space, as noted in the section “Electrostatics”, are the change of electrostatic interaction from an inverse dependence on the square of the distance to the third degree of distance. This will lead to the destruction of atoms, which can be later regenerated. Electrons will be located at other positions in the new atoms. Accordingly, the gravitational attraction will also change its dependence on distance, from the inverse square of distance to the inverse third degree of distance.

CHARGE CLUSTERS

The phenomenon of charge clusters was studied by Ken Shoulders (http://www.rexresearch.com/ev/ev.htm; http://www.svn.net/krscfs/Charge%20Clusters%20In%20Action.pdf). These clusters have sizes in the micrometer range, and have an excess of electrons in the ratio of the order of one positive ion for 100,000 electrons. The number of electrons in the cluster is 108–1011. Stability of the clusters, and the absence of repulsion between the electrons in them, has no explanation in modern physics. In the proposed theory, the size and stability of the clusters can be explained by electrostatic interaction at a distance of less than 10−5 m (see “Electrostatics” and “Atoms and Spectra”). The number of electrons also fits with the size of clusters. The linear arrangement of electrons (having a linear size 10−15 m), when numbering 108–1011, correlates with the cluster size, of around 10−6 m. If the cluster size becomes larger, i.e. the distance between the electrons increases, this will change the nature of the electrostatic interaction between electrons, and the cluster will not be sustainable.