APPENDIX 1. CONSEQUENCES OF
h-SPACE THEORY BEYOND MODERN
TETRANEUTRON, DIPROTON, DINEUTRON, MULTI-MUONS
In the suggested theory, due to the fact that
protons and neutrons are complexes of
electrons and positrons, the formation of
unstable complex having more electrons and
positrons, such as tetraneutron
possible (see Fig. 14a). According to the
modern theoretical concepts, these complexes
do not exist. Muons, in the suggested theory,
have the same composition as protons, but in
contrast to the proton, an unstable spatial
configuration. Because of this, we can also
consider as real the multi-muons, as unstable
complexes, clusters of electrons and
positrons. Multi-muons were detected in
collisions of protons and antiprotons
unstable cluster can be a complex of three
protons shown in figure 14a.
VARIABILITY OF CONSTANTS
In the proposed theory, the speed of light and
the “Planck constant” are both constants. The
charge of the electron corresponds to the
density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0 and,
accordingly, decreases with time. This
reduction in charge can explain the results
obtained by astronomer John K. Webb, who in
1999, discovered that light from a distant
quasar 12 billion light years, is absorbed by
metal ions in interstellar clouds, but the
absorbed photons do not correspond to the
spectra of the metals. Since the interaction
of light with matter is determined by the
fine-structure constant, α, then it has been
suggested that α had a different value. This
assumption is not consistent with modern
physical concepts. All three constants, which
determine the alpha (α=e2/hc) – the
electron charge (e), the speed of light (c)
and Planck constant (h), cannot be changed. In
the proposed theory, however, the electron
charge is not constant. Accordingly, the alpha
should decrease with time, offering an
explanation for the observed change in the
absorption/emission spectrum of metals.
BOUNDARY OF GRAVITY AND KUIPER BELT
In the proposed theory, the effect of gravity
has a boundary that is determined by the
density and size of a body. In the suggested
theory, it is assumed that the Sun has a
maximum density ρM , similar to the
density of atomic nuclei. Under these
conditions, the density of n=0 objects(I) ρM
is maximal and equal to ρ0, ρM
= ρ0 = 1010. The
boundary of the Sun’s gravity can be
calculated, taking into account the linear
dimension of the Sun, and is ≈ 1013
m (see “Gravitational attraction”). This is
comparable to the distance from the Sun to the
Kuiper Belt, ≈ 1013 m. To assess
the limits of gravity of the planets (see
“Gravitational attraction”), their density ρM
is assumed to be less than that of the Sun.
Then, the density of n=0-objects(I) ρM
is ≈ 106–107.
The calculation for the Earth shows that the
boundary of its gravitational action is around
10 million kilometers.
The cause of gravity in the proposed theory is
due to the reduction in density of
n=0-objects(I) ρ0, or, more
precisely, the change in the density of the
vacuum ρM, around the body, as a
result of the displacement of n=0-objects(I)
by the body. In addition to gravity, a change
in the density of n=0-objects(I) ρ0
takes place during the generation of magnetic
field. It is characterized by the density ρΔ
appearing as the result of electrons/positrons
motion. Changes in the magnetic field, i.e.
the changes in the density of n=0-objects(I) ρΔ,
is associated with changes in the density of
n=0 objects(I) ρ0, and therefore
should lead to a change in the gravitational
attraction, which is associated with the
decrease in the density ρ0.
COLD FUSION – LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION (LENR)
After the report in 1989 by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, the
majority of cold fusion (LENR) experiments were performed as electrolysis
of heavy water with a palladium cathode. The results (excess heat,
helium generation, nuclear transmutations, neutron and tritium radiation)
were inconsistent and contrary to the official current view on the
synthesis of helium nuclei from deuteron. In another type of LENR
experiment, nickel rod saturated with hydrogen was heated and excess
heat was reported (Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems. 1994 S.
Focardi, R. Habel and F. Piantelli, IL NUOVOCIMENTO VOL. 107A, N. 1;
Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems. 1998 S. Focardi, V.
Gabbani, V. Montalbano, F. Piantelli and S. Veronesi, IL NUOVO CIMENTO
VOL. 111A, N. 11). In 2011, new attention to LENR research was attracted
by the demonstration performed by Andrea Rossi. A high excess heat was
reported in his device, called the E-cat. In the E-cat nickel powder was
sutured with hydrogen and heated under high pressure. The fuel in the
E-cat contained additional elements besides the nickel. According to
the patent application, analysis of the fuel after its use in the E-cat
showed that it contained a number of different elements, indicating
both nuclear fusion and fission (http://www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com/files/Patent_WO-2009-125444.pdf).
In 2013, the test of modified Rossi’s device (called the E-cat HT)
by other investigators confirmed the previously observed thermal effects
(Levi, G., et al., 2013 Indication of anomalous heat energy production in
a reactor device arXiv:1305.3913). In 2014, another test of Rossi’s device
was performed for duration (32 days) longer than previously
The investigators have detected lithium, aluminum and iron in the initial fuel.
The heat excess was again confirmed and it was found out that nickel and
lithium in the ash had different isotopes ratio in comparison with the
initial fuel. The most interesting is decrease of 7Li amount that indicates
the possibility of its fission.
In the proposed theory, LENR can be explained by the positron-electron
composition of nuclei and Coulomb low at the atomic scale. According to the
1. in atoms at a distance 10−15 to 10−10 meters there is no attraction/repulsion of electrons and positrons;
2. in atoms, attraction/repulsion increases from zero at 10−10 meters to a maximum at 10−5 meters from the nucleus;
3. in the nucleus there is no strong interaction. Electrons and positrons are held by their attraction and repulsion
to each other with a velocity of 10−2 meters per second.
Thus, in the proposed theory the problem of overcoming the Coulomb repulsion between the
nuclei is not relevant for a range of distances from 10-15 to 10-10 meters.
Nuclear repulsion exists only in the range 10-5–10-10 m, and it can be compensated
by an attraction to the electrons placed at the same distance from the nucleus.
Heating of the proton-saturated nickel powder increases electrons and protons mobility.
Additionally, the pulsed magnetic field can also accelerate protons and electrons. This
will increase the rate of collisions between electrons, nickel (and other elements)
nuclei and protons. This can lead to:
1. proton fission to one electron and two positrons;
2. proton fission to an electron-positron pair and a free positron;
3. the formation neutrons, which are complexes of two positrons and two electrons.
4. the fission of nickel nuclei and nuclei of other elements.
All these events will cause generation of heat and the nuclear transmutations as the
consequences of initial proton and nickel (as well lithium, in the case of E-cat)
nuclei fission. In the proposed theory nuclear fusion is possible as secondary
reactions, but they will not produce the heat excess in LENR devices.
Very effective heat production in the E-cat is very likely due to fission
of lithium in result of interaction of lithium nuclei with protons that produces
the alpha particles. Low efficiency of the earlier experiments with nickel rods
can be explained by lower efficiency of protons and nickel nuclei fission in
comparison with lithium fission. It is also possible that the micron size of
fuel particles has also contributed to the more efficient thermal affect,
since electrostatic interaction is at maximum at the distance 10-5 meters.
FORMATION OF FOUR-DIMENSIONAL SPACE
In the proposed theory, after a while
three-dimensional space is predicted to be
replaced by four-dimensional space. The
important question then is when this can
happen. To answer this it is necessary to
compare the length of objects of
four-dimensional space with the current linear
dimension of the universe. Today, the linear
size of the universe is estimated at ≈ 1026
m. With the creation of four-dimensional
space, the length of objects of
four-dimensional space, and the total length
of the universe in absolute length units is 1030.
Since the absolute unit of length is equal to
≈ 10−5 m, it follows that the
current size of the universe is close to the
total length of the beginning of
four-dimensional space. Thus, the change from
three-dimensional space to four-dimensional
space could be very soon. Another estimate of
the time of transition can be obtained by
assuming the identity of the constant c = 1/√ε0μ0
and the velocity v0ρ0.
The transition to four-dimensional space, as
has been stated above, can happen at a linear
size of the universe equal to the length of
n=4-object. In this case, the velocity v0ρ0
will be reduced to the value equal to the
velocity of one-dimensional objects, i.e. to
the speed of light. A comparison of the values
of the constant c (velocity v0ρ0)
and the speed of light can provide a rough
estimation of the transition time. The
constant c is the inverse square root of the
product of the vacuum permeability, μ0,
and the vacuum permittivity, ε0. In
this product, the value of μ0 is
accurate and does not require the definition
from the experiment. On the contrary ε0
is determined from experiment.
Changes that will accompany the emergence of
four-dimensional space, as noted in the
section “Electrostatics”, are the change of
electrostatic interaction from an inverse
dependence on the square of the distance to
the third degree of distance. This will lead
to the destruction of atoms, which can be
later regenerated. Electrons will be located
at other positions in the new atoms.
Accordingly, the gravitational attraction will
also change its dependence on distance, from
the inverse square of distance to the inverse
third degree of distance.
The phenomenon of charge clusters was studied
by Ken Shoulders
These clusters have sizes in the micrometer
range, and have an excess of electrons in the
ratio of the order of one positive ion for
100,000 electrons. The number of electrons in
the cluster is 108–1011.
Stability of the clusters, and the absence of
repulsion between the electrons in them, has
no explanation in modern physics. In the
proposed theory, the size and stability of the
clusters can be explained by electrostatic
interaction at a distance of less than 10−5
m (see “Electrostatics” and “Atoms and
Spectra”). The number of electrons also fits
with the size of clusters. The linear
arrangement of electrons (having a linear size
10−15 m), when numbering 108–1011,
correlates with the cluster size, of around 10−6
m. If the cluster size becomes larger, i.e.
the distance between the electrons increases,
this will change the nature of the
electrostatic interaction between electrons,
and the cluster will not be sustainable.